Background Content

Business and Reconciliation (92)

An Overview of the Indigenous Economy in Canada

October 18, 2023

Staff Discussion Paper 2023-25 (English)

Available as: PDF

Attempts to measure aspects of the Indigenous economy in Canada are limited by data availability and quality. Drawing on the most recent data sources and research, we provide an overview of the Indigenous economy in Canada. This includes a discussion of the various characteristics of the Indigenous economy, including

  • the labour market and the business sector,
  • institutional settings, and
  • the state of infrastructure.

While several measures suggest economic outcomes have improved for Indigenous Peoples in recent decades, institutional settings and gaps in infrastructure and financing continue to hinder their economic progress. The creation of new institutions is helping Indigenous communities to overcome historic barriers to growth, but continued progress is needed to improve data on the Indigenous economy. This would enable policymakers and Indigenous leaders to measure progress and make informed decisions. 

Content Type(s): Staff researchStaff discussion papers

Topic(s): Central bank researchDevelopment economicsFinancial servicesLabour marketsMonetary policy transmissionRegional economic developments

JEL Code(s): EE0E01E02NN4N41N42OO4O43PP4P48


Alex ChernoffCalista Cheung