Treaties and Land Claims: Background Content

Historical Treaties of Canada and First Nations


Fed. Govt.

Historical Treaties and First Nations

Treaty Date Coverage
Peace & Friendship 1725-1779 Signed on the East Coast with Mi’kmaq, Maliseet and Passamaquoddy First Nations prior to 1779.
Upper Canada Land Surrenders 1764-1836 The Upper Canada Land Surrenders is a title given to a series of agreements made between Indigenous peoples and the Crown before Confederation and the creation of the province of Ontario.
Huron-British Treaty 1760 The Supreme Court of Canada confirmed in 1990 in Sioui the existence and the validity of the 1760 Anglo-Huron Treaty. Canada recognizes the existence of a relationship based, inter alia, on the 1760 Anglo-Huron Treaty with the Huron-Wendat Nation.
Treaty of Niagara 1764 The 1764 Treaty of Niagara between the crown and 24 Nations from the Haudenosaunee , Seneca, Wyandot of Detroit, Menominee, Algonquin, Nipissing OjibwaMississaugas, and others who were part of the Seven Nations of Canada and the Western Lakes Confederacy.
Robinson Treaties 1850 The Robinson Treaties are two treaties signed between the Ojibwa chiefs and The Crown in 1850 in the Province of Canada. The first treaty involved Ojibwa chiefs along the north shore of Lake Superior, and is known as the Robinson Superior Treaty. The second treaty, signed two days later, included Ojibwa chiefs from along the eastern and northern shores of Lake Huron, and is known as the Robinson Huron Treaty. The Wiikwemkoong First Nation did not sign either treaty, and their land is considered “unceded”. (Wikipedia)
Douglas Treaties 1850-1854 The Douglas Treaties, also known as the Vancouver Island Treaties or the Fort Victoria Treaties, were a series of treaties signed between certain indigenous groups on Vancouver Island and the Colony of Vancouver Island. (Wikipedia)
Numbered Treaties 1871-1921 The Numbered Treaties were a series of 11 treaties made between the Crown and First Nations from 1871 to 1921. (Canadian Encyclopedia)
Treaty 1 1871 Southern Manitoba
Treaty 2 1871 Parts of southern Manitoba and Saskatchewan
Treaty 3 1873 Northern Ontario and Eastern Manitoba
Treaty 4 1874 Southern Saskatchewan, parts of Manitoba
Treaty 5 1875, 1908 Manitoba
Treaty 6 1876 Central Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba
Treaty 7 1877 Covers southern Alberta
Treaty 8 1899 Covers parts of northern Alberta, BC, Saskatchewan, and the NWT
Treaty 9 1905, 1929 Northern Ontario
Treaty 10 1888, 1906 North Saskatchewan, Manitoba
Treaty 11 1921 Northwest Territories
Williams Treaties 1923 Southern Ontario

Other Background Content By Theme


Treaty Land Entitlements

Read more


First Nations Land Management Regime

Read more


Specific Claims

Read more


Comprehensive Claims and Modern Treaties

Read more