Urban Commitments to Reconciliation: Background Content

Individual Municipal Commitments

November 18, 2022


Alderville First Nation chief thanks Brighton mayor for ‘building bridges with us’

Dave Mowat, neighbouring mayors offer congratulations to Brighton’s new council

As municipal council members across Northumberland County were sworn into their roles in recent ceremonies, Alderville First Nation Chief Dave Mowat was in Brighton Nov. 15.

The chief made the point of attending the Municipality of Brighton Council’s inaugural meeting at King Edward Park Community Centre to express his appreciation for the relationship Brighton has fostered with Alderville. 

 “Congratulations mayor and council,” Mowat said, “and I wish you all the best in the next four years.”

 “I had the pleasure of getting to know (Mayor Brian Ostrander) during the last term and I just want to commend him for the outreach,” Mowat said.

 The chief told the Brighton Independent he particularly appreciates the leadership of Ostrander and Brighton’s previous council, which endorsed initiatives in support of the first National Day for Truth and Reconciliation in 2021. This included the painting of an orange band around the perimeter of Memorial Park that bears the words “truth and reconciliation” and “every child matters.” Preston Parkinson, Brighton’s previous director of public works and infrastructure, and Mowat collaborated on the project, which council approved.  

 “(Ostrander) and I have a good relationship, primarily from the first inception of the National Day for Truth and Reconciliation. I find him to be very progressive insofar as building bridges with us here (and with) the Indigenous community in general.”

 Brighton’s inaugural meeting for the 2022-2026 term of council encompassed the introduction and declaration of the mayor, deputy mayor and councillors. Ostrander, Deputy Mayor Ron Anderson and councillors Anne Butwell, Byron Faretis, Emily Rowley, Jeff Wheeldon and Bobbi Wright were sworn in and took their oath of office presided over by Brighton municipal clerk Candice Doiron.

 Other speakers included mayors from the Quinte region and Northumberland County, former Brighton politicians, and Northumberland-Peterborough South MPP David Piccini shared a short video message.

Ostrander, in his speech, welcomed back Anderson and Rowley to council and congratulated the four new councillors who will be joining them in chambers. 

 “As I reflected on your choices for this new council, I came to realize that I was quite right to campaign on a theme of progress and stability for the next four years,” Ostrander said.

 “I see in my six council colleagues an eagerness to learn how to make life better in Brighton, and to do so with a staff team that is dedicated to our community and its progress. I see a team that is ready to do some proverbial heavy lifting.” 

 Access to health care, improved infrastructure, and parks and recreation renewal are issues top of mind for the mayor as the new term begins.  

 Earlier in the evening, members of the Royal Canadian Legion Brighton Branch 100 ushered in the new council, Trinity-St. Andrew’s Church Reverend Wanda Stride offered a blessing, and East Northumberland Secondary School’s choir, Razzmajazz, led the singing of the national anthem and provided a musical interlude.

August 19, 2020

Association of Municipalities of Ontario

Ontario Federation of Indian Friendship Centres (OFIFC) and the Association of Municipalities of Ontario – are taking a meaningful step towards reconciliation Ontario with the signing of a Declaration of Mutual Commitment and Friendship: Improving the Quality of Life of Indigenous People across Ontario’s Municipalities. The agreement is designed to help municipal governments and Friendship Centres build relationships and collaborate to improve supports and services for Indigenous people in their communities.

The following towns have signed the Declaration:

  • The Town of Fort Erie, the Region of Niagara and the Fort Erie Native Friendship Centre
  • The Town of Sioux Lookout and the Nishnawbe-Gamik Friendship Centre
  • The City of London and the N’Amerind Friendship Centre
  • The Town of Cochrane and the Ininew Friendship Centre
  • The City of Sault Ste. Marie and the Indian Friendship Centre
  • The City of Hamilton and the Hamilton Regional Indian Centre

Several more partners are in the process of discussing a local declaration, including but not limited to:

  • The City of Dryden and the Dryden Native Friendship Centre
  • The City of Ottawa and the Odawa Native Friendship Centre
  • The Town of Red Lake and the Red Lake Indian Friendship Centre
  • The Town of Fort Frances and the United Native Friendship Centre
  • The City of North Bay and the North Bay Indigenous Indian Friendship Centre

March 23, 2017

Chibougamau, Joliette, La Tuque, Maniwaki, Montréal, Roberval, Senneterre, Sept-Îles and Val-d’Or

Representatives from nine cities and their nine Native Friendship Centres signed the Mutual Commitment to Improve the Living Conditions of Urban Aboriginal People and set up a Joint Committee to solidify dialogue and support direct actions.

July 13, 2005

Edmonton, AB

“How can the City of Edmonton best support and build strong relationships with Indigenous Peoples in Edmonton?”

The answer to that question inforrned the development of the “City of Edmonton Indigenous Framework.” The three main elements of the Framework:

  • Guiding Principles: Relationships, Agreements, Celebrations, Renewal
  • Four Rules: Listener, Connector, Advocate, Partner
  • Seven commitments: 

are meant to guide City staff on their learning journeys of reconciliation and relationship-building with Indigenous Peoples.


April 12, 2023

First Nations-Municipal Community Economic Development Initiative (CEDI)

What is CEDI?

Many municipalities and First Nations want to collaborate as neighbours, but they don’t always know where to begin. The Community Economic Development Initiative (CEDI), implemented in partnership by the Council for the Advancement of Native Development Officers (Cando) and the Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM), aims to improve the economic prosperity of First Nations and adjacent municipalities through joint community economic development planning and initiatives.

CEDI’s approach is to convene, listen and unite. CEDI gives First Nations and municipalities a chance to come together, learn from each other and work on common priorities, all while building respectful and sustainable government-to-government partnerships.https:

For a better understanding of how CEDI works, watch this short video  (transcript)

Since 2013, CEDI has helped dozens of municipalities and First Nations develop partnerships that establish and support their mutually beneficial economic development. We help coordinate local action to address regional issues and build a more sustainable economy for all.

Why Joint Community Economic Development (CED)?

Although most First Nations and municipalities across Canada engage in community economic development planning and initiatives, they most often do so in parallel since they work in different jurisdictions.

CEDI partnerships have identified many benefits to working together on joint CED, namely: improve regional economic development prospects, including employment opportunities, external investment and long-term sustainability; all while enhancing relationships with their neighbours and community members.

Benefits of Joint First Nation-Municipal CED 

Joint CED promotes reconciliation, collaboration and the recognition of common values and goals. Other benefits include:  

  • A stronger, united voice for engaging with businesses and other levels of government. 
  • Increased ability to access funding from other levels of government. 
  • Stronger regional identity, relationships and sense of place. 
  • Cost savings when providing services, due to higher efficiencies and less duplication.
  • More opportunities for local business development and jobs. 
  • Ability to leverage the unique financial, human and physical capacities of each partner. 
  • Coordinated planning efforts to improve land use and land management (to make room for growing populations and to attract new investors and citizens). 
  • Coordinated planning efforts to aid in protecting resources and natural environments that are important to partner communities.

July 6, 2022


Georgian Bay General Hospital in Midland working to improve health care for First Nation, Métis and Inuit people

Simcoe.com: Improvements are being promised when it comes to the quality of health care available to the local Indigenous community.

Georgian Bay General Hospital (GBGH) has entered into a formal relationship with the Indigenous Health Circle, through the Barrie Area Native Advisory Circle (BANAC), to identify gaps in local health services and establish measurable goals to improve services offered to Indigenous, Métis and Inuit residents.

“We pledge to work towards equality, while serving all patients with respect, compassion, understanding and empathy without prejudice or racism,” said Gail Hunt, former president and chief administrative officer. 

In signing this agreement, GBGH and the Indigenous Health Circle have made a commitment to work together to identify common priorities and issues, resolve key challenges and impasses, improve the quality and availability of health data at the regional level for First Nations, Métis and Inuit people, and uphold First Nations, Metis and Inuit peoples’ right to self-govern.

“Improving relationships with GBGH’s Indigenous partners is an ongoing journey,” added Hunt, who resigned from her role effective June 23. “It is a journey that involves effort and open-mindedness … embracing diversity, fostering inclusivity and increasing our awareness of the unique opportunities that come with forming stronger partnerships with Indigenous organizations.”

The two sides have agreed to meet twice annually to build their relationship and work toward improving and advancing health care for Indigenous peoples in the community.

“This is important work for our hospital given the significant and unique Indigenous populations GBGH serves,” said Matthew Lawson, GBGH’s interim president and CAO. “I assure you that GBGH will move forward in the spirit of respect and inclusiveness based on stronger, more productive and culturally safe relationships with Indigenous health partners.”https://6cb37d739e406411b37aaddc1c2e3410.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-38/html/container.html

Germaine Elliott, executive director of the Indigenous Health Circle, signed the agreement alongside Lawson on June 21 – National Indigenous Peoples Day. She said she is looking forward to working with GBGH officials to improve health care for all. “The issues for indigenous communities with regard to health are many, and inter-generational, and it will take a lot of good collaborative work to make the changes we need,” said Elliott.

She reminisced about a time when Indigenous communities were healthier, and knew how to use their own medicines, build their own houses, plant gardens, hunt and fish. 

“I know we can bring that back to our community. It happens when Indigenous people are involved in making our own decisions and signing our own plans and strategies and bringing them forward,” said Elliott.

“The road to recovery for our communities must be Indigenous-led and must be Indigenous-governed. We are happy to enter into a letter of relationship with GBGH to work with them, side by side, to create the changes that are needed in an acute-care setting and to make sure there is equitable access to services and treatment and traditional healing when it is needed.”

October 4, 2018

Halifax, NS

The municipality is committed to the recommendations outlined in the report put forth by the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (TRC) and to working with the community to address issues that impact access to municipal services. As part of this commitment, the Halifax Regional Municipality has partnered with The Gord Downie & Chanie Wenjack Fund to open the first Legacy Space in Canada located within a city hall. The Legacy Space at Halifax City Hall will provide information about Chanie Wenjack and reconciliation for staff and visitors. We are committed to having accurate information available to all, regarding Indigenous History on our journey to reconciliation.

July 26, 2018

Halifax, NS

The Halifax Regional Municipality announced the members of the newly formed Special Advisory Committee on the Commemoration of Edward Cornwallis and Commemoration of Indigenous History. The advisory committee’s focus over the coming months will be to identify a path forward that better recognizes Indigenous history, particularly of the Mi’kmaq, as it pertains to lands now known as Halifax Regional Municipality. Part of that path forward involves providing Regional Council with recommendations on our shared history, including how we commemorate Edward Cornwallis on municipal assets, including Cornwallis Park, the statue, and Cornwallis Street.

December 8, 2015

Halifax, NS

Introduction of a Motion for Council to Consider a Statement of Reconciliation to support the municipality’s work with Mi’kmaq and Urban Indigenous communities. As the Office of Diversity & Inclusion develops a work plan, which includes a focussed consultation with aboriginal people, this motion is to provide a mandate and direction to support the BCMC working group, and to incorporate an urban‐aboriginal strategy into the work plan of the Office of Diversity & Inclusion.

December 6, 2022

Historic partnership hopes to provide better support services for Indigenous families in Calgary

Closer to Home Community Services and Siksika Nation members involved in organizing the partnership on October 19, 2022. 

NationTalk: Calgary: In late October, Closer to Home Community Services and Siksika Nation signed a historic agreement — a first-of-its-kind memorandum of understanding that both groups hope provides better support services for Indigenous families in Calgary.

“We are excited and humbled to be partners in this journey,” said Karen Olivier, chief executive officer of Closer to Home, in a joint news release. 


The partnership flows from federal legislation passed in 2019 that affirmed Indigenous communities’ jurisdiction in child and family services.

Closer to Home supports families with an approach grounded in the Teaching Family Model – an evidence-based, trauma-informed process equipping families with tools to support themselves and their children early on. 

Olivier said this method aims to preserve family relationships “at all costs” while ensuring families become more resilient.

“We are very strategic about what we provide to a family because they all have strengths, and we’re there to help them uncover that,” Olivier said. “We want parents to be the ones who are empowered to help themselves and help their children.”

The Siksika Nation has nearly 8,000 members, many of whom live in around Calgary.

Authentically supporting Indigenous families is central to Closer to Home Services’ mission as well. Olivier said the last 15 years focused on becoming familiar with Indigenous culture and how to best offer assistance.

The partnership flows from federal legislation passed in 2019 that affirmed Indigenous communities’ jurisdiction in child and family services.

Closer to Home supports families with an approach grounded in the Teaching Family Model – an evidence-based, trauma-informed process equipping families with tools to support themselves and their children early on. 

Olivier said this method aims to preserve family relationships “at all costs” while ensuring families become more resilient.

“We are very strategic about what we provide to a family because they all have strengths, and we’re there to help them uncover that,” Olivier said. “We want parents to be the ones who are empowered to help themselves and help their children.”

The Siksika Nation has nearly 8,000 members, many of whom live in around Calgary.

Authentically supporting Indigenous families is central to Closer to Home Services’ mission as well. Olivier said the last 15 years focused on becoming familiar with Indigenous culture and how to best offer assistance.

The new agreement extends this goal, while also formalizing the partnership and addressing three key areas that will enable Siksika to better support their members:

  • Training and employment, 
  • Affordable housing 
  • Creating access to Indigenous knowledge and teachings in the city. 

Hope for the future

The organization hopes the new deal will offer more career options for young people living on reserve.

“We’re not just talking about moving our services to the reserve,” Olivier said. “We’re talking about building an infrastructure and training a workforce to be able to provide services to themselves in a cultural, adaptive way, like in a way that makes sense for them.”

With inflation and the cost of living skyrocketing – compounded by the shaky rental market – Olivier said committing to developing affordable housing in Calgary is crucial to supporting Indigenous families’ futures.

“Nothing destabilizes the family more than a housing crisis or a financial crisis,” Olivier said. “So, definitely, you really want to give them the best boost possible to be successful. And so then kids do better and they’ll thrive.” 

Closer to Home is also working on a major building project – transforming a six-story building into a community support hub.

The new facility includes 18 affordable housing units and dedicates 8,500 square feet to Indigenous culture and learning, extending knowledge and awareness to Indigenous and non-Indigenous people throughout the city. 

Olivier notes how through a Truth and Reconciliation Commission lens, “It’s really about prioritizing Indigenous people in that approach to make sure that they are first-class members getting services when they need them, without barrier.”

Supporting Bill C-92  

Federal legislation passed in 2019 allows Indigenous communities to create and implement their own policies surrounding child and family services so they better align with each band’s values and circumstances. It also allows children to be placed with extended family and community members.   

The agreement helps to facilitate and aid in this transfer of authority back to each reserve, outlining framework which allows Closer to Home to assist Siksika in establishing child support.   


Olivier adds that the organization looks forward to collaborating further with Siksika on these types of projects. 

Setting a precedent

No other nonprofit in Calgary has committed to an agreement such as this with an Indigenous band, according to Olivier. She hopes Closer to Home’s partnership with Siksika can change that.

“I think it will give them hope that it can be done and that they’ll find their way too,” Olivier said. “This sort of cements a kind of a milestone, in terms of what these partnerships can look like, what you could take on in them, what types of agreements you can have without even knowing what that all means yet.”

Olivier adds that the agreement will only make the organization stronger, and the opportunity to collaborate is enough in itself.

“It’s not about being the first, it’s just about being welcomed in to do the work,” she said. “I really feel like a lot of hard work and learning and wondering and wishing kind of has paid off.”

March 20, 2019

Kenora, ON

Ahze-mino- gahbewewin — Reconciliation Kenora has partnered with Ne-Chee Friendship Centre to hold a two-day strategic planning workshop meant to gather insights from residents about the best way to work together for reconciliation in the city. The organization is seeking people, both Indigenous and non-Indigenous, to speak to their experiences to help inform its next steps.

December 8, 2021

Lacombe, AB

The City of Lacombe held a Treaty 6 Land Recognition Ceremony to commemorate a piece of artwork that will be displayed outside of Council Chambers. After consulting with Elder Roy Louis of Maskwacis, Artist Byron Samson, whose Cree name is Mistikonapew, was commissioned by the City to create an artwork recognizing the significance of Treaty 6.

The artwork acknowledges that the community rests on Treaty 6 Lands, and the historic Indigenous travelling route called the Buffalo Trail, which passed through the Medicine Hills or Mahikan Wachisak (Wolf Hills) / Nisto Chaki Atinak (Three Pointed Hills), the City of Lacombe and Central Alberta. The artwork includes images of seven chiefs, three government representatives and one interpreter

May 14, 2018

Lethbridge, AB

For the first time the City of Lethbridge “acknowledges that we are gathered on the lands of the Blackfoot people of the Canadian plains….And pays respect to the Blackfoot people past, present and future, while recognizing and respecting their cultural heritage, beliefs and relationship to the land.

“The City of Lethbridge is also home to the Métis Nation of Alberta, Region 3.”

City of Lethbridge and Lethbridge Indigenous Sharing Network “Reconciliation Implementation Plan. 2017-2027”. The plan is focused on aligning with TRC Calls to Action.


November 10, 2022

Mayor of Toronto apologizes to the Métis People for role in Northwest Resistance of 1885

On August 19, 2022, Mayor John Tory offered an apology to the Métis people on behalf of the City of Toronto for its role in contributing to the militarized action against Métis people during the Northwest Resistance of 1885, in what is now Saskatchewan.

NationTalk: Read the apology:


The City of Toronto is committed to advancing truth, justice and reconciliation with First Nations, Inuit and Métis Peoples. Canada has learned from the findings of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission and the National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls, as well as other inquiries that reconciliation cannot be achieved without first addressing the hard truths of our past.

One of the guiding principles of the TRC is that “healing relationships requires public truth sharing, apology, and commemoration that acknowledge and redress past harms.” One such truth that has been largely overlooked for more than 100 years is the City of Toronto’s role in the Northwest Resistance of 1885, in what is now the province of Saskatchewan.

To begin, let me provide a historical snapshot of Toronto in the late 1800s as it was a far different city than it is today. Toronto had a population of around 100,000 people. Ninety-three per cent of its residents were British and 85 per cent were Protestant. Meanwhile, thousands of kilometres away, the Métis, led by Louis Riel, were fighting for rights to their land following an influx of white settlers and a decline in bison that threatened their way of life and their very survival. The media coverage of the time regularly described the Métis as “wild”, “miserable” and “impulsive halfbreeds” and labelled the resistance a “rebellion.” On March 30, 1885, local newspaper the Toronto World, exclaimed, “War, war, war was the cry, and war it will be till Mr. Riel and his followers bite the dust.” Not long after, the Queen’s Own Rifles and Royal Grenadiers, who were based in Toronto, sent hundreds of volunteer militia to join Canada’s efforts to suppress the Northwest Resistance.

Today, I apologize for the role the City of Toronto played in contributing to militarized action against Métis people. The City of Toronto financially contributed to the Northwest Resistance by providing supplies to the militia troops. When they returned claiming victory, the City of Toronto organized and funded a grand parade to celebrate. At the event, the mayor, surrounded by City Council, made a speech honouring the troops. On July 24, 1885, the Toronto World reported about the event: “Over one hundred thousand people yesterday joined in the warmest welcome that was ever given in this fair dominion to citizen soldiers who had served their country in suppressing armed rebellion. The oldest and youngest inhabitants agreed for once that it was the greatest day Toronto ever witnessed.” The mayor hosted the first Monument Committee meeting at City Hall to begin working on a statue to commemorate the soldiers. That committee disbanded and, when another group took up the cause years later, the City of Toronto financially contributed to the monument that is still standing in Toronto today. All of these actions by the City of Toronto – funding, celebrating and commemorating the quashing of the Northwest Resistance – contributed to the overall milieu of hostility towards the Métis.  For this, on behalf of Toronto City Council, I wholeheartedly apologize.

The defeat of the Northwest Resistance and the hanging of Louis Riel on November 16, 1885 were the backdrop for a peak of hostility, racism, and colonial violence towards the Métis. In Toronto and across the country, Métis were forced to hide their identities for fear of reprisal. As a result, the Métis became “the forgotten people.” I have heard when listening to community in Toronto that this legacy of oppression continues to have long-term ramifications on the culture, health and well-being of Métis people that will require hard work and redress going forward.

An apology is nothing without action. This year, the City of Toronto adopted its first Reconciliation Action Plan. It includes many strategies to enhance relationships with the Indigenous community in Toronto. As part of the plan, the City commits to working together with the Toronto and York Region Métis Council to develop educational programs and commemorative initiatives that further explain the history behind this apology and educate all residents of and visitors to Toronto.

We value the contributions that the Council makes, in partnership with many other Indigenous organizations, to support the urban Indigenous community and in challenging the City to better respond to the rights of First Nations, Inuit and Métis Peoples in Toronto. I hope that apologizing for the role that the City of Toronto and Toronto City Council played in the Northwest Resistance will help the Métis heal from the injustices of the past, honour the sacrifices of their ancestors, and contribute to the pride of Métis culture and identity for future generations.

In unity,

John Tory

Mayor of Toronto

January 4, 2023


Midland and Penetanguishene commit to strengthening relationships with First Nations, Métis communities

Recent steps made by both town councils have Indigenous and Métis residents hopeful

NationTalk: Simcoe.com Patricia Monague is hopeful. Hopeful that one day all those who reside in north Simcoe, including the First Nations and Métis communities, will feel like they belong.

Monague’s hope grew Nov. 16, when she participated in Midland’s inaugural council meeting. She was invited by Mayor Bill Gordon to perform a smudging ceremony prior to the swearing in of the new council. “Because the mayor has extended his spiritual being to include his First Nation, I feel like there is hope now,” she said.

The 58-year-old grandmother from Beausoleil First Nation said bigotry and racism exist in Midland and Penetanguishene and addressing the topic and having support from both councils could lead to a better future. “We all survived COVID-19. We all suffered losses. Now it’s time for everyone to get over their preconceptions about their First Nation people,” she said.

The discovery of 215 unmarked graves at a residential school site in Kamloops in 2021 prompted many non-Indigenous residents to question what they know about our country’s history and to be willing to listen and learn, including those on council.

“The mayor is role modelling what it is to be a person willing to make positive steps into the future in regard to building political bridges and social bridges between the two communities,” said Monague, who serves as the heritage and cultural co-ordinator on Beausoleil First Nation.

The relationship between Midland and Beausoleil First Nation has improved in recent years. A relationship agreement to promote open, ongoing discussions was signed in 2018. The town reads a land acknowledgment before council meetings and the two communities are partners in a local Cultural Alliance. 

However, there’s work to be done.

“Bridging the deep divide that our colonial past has created starts with inclusion, listening and educating ourselves on the rich culture and heritage that existed here long before we came ashore to discover these ‘new’ lands,” Gordon said.

He said he’s proud residents formed a council that consists of members with Indigenous roots, both First Nation and Métis, and he plans to keep the momentum going by renewing the working relationship agreement with Beausoleil First Nation, forming an Indigenous relations committee and working more closely with the Georgian Bay Métis Council.

“I plan on strengthening our relationships with our entire community this term, and that certainly includes our First Nation and Métis residents,” Gordon said.

Penetanguishene Mayor Doug Rawson is also focused on engagement.

On Nov. 23, at the municipality’s inaugural council meeting, a land acknowledgment was read, which touched on the fact Penetaguishene has been home to Indigenous and Métis people for thousands of years. The Chigamik drum circle performed and Greg Garratt, president of the Georgian Bay Métis Council, was provided an opportunity to speak.

“Our inaugural meeting was a celebration of who comprises our community — Francophone, First Nations and Métis,” Rawson said. “We tried to be inclusive. That is the theme and spirit for this term.”

Garratt sees the invite as a “historic step forward.” “It was the first time ever that the president of our council was invited to local inaugurations,” Garratt said. “It is indicative of the fact (municipalities) are starting to understand the culture that lies in this area.”

Penetanguishene is the epicentre of the Georgian Bay Historic Métis Community — the largest of the seven federally recognized historic Métis communities in the province. Approximately 5,000 Métis — 25 per cent of Ontario’s Métis population — live in the region.

“The fact that municipalities are willing to know who we are and willing to engage with us is a great first step,” Garratt said. “From here, we need to keep building this relationship.”

Andrew Mendler is a reporter at The Midland Mirror. He writes about a wide range of issues in Midland, Penetanguishene, Tiny and Tay. You can reach him at amendler@simcoe.com . Follow him on Twitter and Simcoe.com on Facebook

July 21, 2021

Mission, BC

An agreement signed today by the Province, Leq’á:mel, Matsqui and Sumas First Nations and the City of Mission will return traditional lands to the First Nations and establish new public parklands and recreation areas. An agreement signed today by the Province, Leq’á:mel, Matsqui and Sumas First Nations and the City of Mission will return traditional lands to the First Nations and establish new public parklands and recreation areas.

December 12, 2020

Montréal, QC

$100K in funding to support Résilience Montréal for its operations and are providing all the necessary support and assistance to carry through with the relocation project of this resource in the Cabot Square area. The Résilience Montréal drop-in centre was inaugurated on November 14, 2019, in space rented near Cabot Square. It provides homeless and vulnerable people – including a large number of Indigenous people – with services of reception, coaching, emergency needs (food, clothing, laundry) and psychosocial intervention. The drop-in centre has a high acceptability threshold.

Résilience Montréal is the result of mobilization by the Native Women’s Shelter of Montreal, the Nazareth Community and other local community stakeholders. The Government of Quebec is also providing assistance disbursed as part of the Aboriginal Initiative Fund III (FIA III), Support to Aboriginal people in an Urban Environment – Infrastructure component. This support, added to eventual contributions from other partners, will enable Résilience Montréal to acquire and refurbish a building, in order to provide a sustainable presence

June 15, 2020

Montréal, QC

Release of “Summary Report: Public Consultation on systemic Racism and Discrimination within the Jurisdiction of the City of Montréal” by the Office de consultation publique de Montréal.

The goal of the consultation was not to verify the alleged facts, but rather to draw a portrait of the current state of affairs, to highlight the solutions proposed by the collectivity and to enlarge perspectives in order to guide public decision-making.

The 38 recommendations of the Commission involve, essentially, four major phases that are required in order to manage strategic change: recognizing the problem, measuring the problem, defining goals that lead to concrete actions and being accountable for these actions

The recommendations are divided into two categories:

  • transversal recommendations that create a framework for the elaboration of a strategy to counter systemic racism and discrimination within the jurisdiction of the City;
  • specific recommendations to implement this strategy within the various domains under the City’s jurisdiction.


August 28, 2017

Montréal, QC

The city council of the Ville de Montréal unanimously endorsed the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. There are plans to use the declaration as a guideline to further develop its reconciliation strategy.

April 12, 2023


New Economic Development Partnership Between Saugeen Shores and Saugeen First Nation

New Economic Development Partnership Between Saugeen Shores and Saugeen First Nation

Cover page logo from CEDI Collaboration Guide

The Town of Saugeen Shores has committed to entering into a First Nation – Municipal Community Economic Development Initiative with Saugeen First Nation. A resolution was passed by council Tuesday.

A staff report says the goal is to improve the economic prosperity of participating communities through economic development planning and initiatives.

It’s called the Community Economic Development Initiative (CEDI), and a Town staff report says it’s a partnership program for First Nations and municipalities that is co-managed and co-delivered by the Council for the Advancement of Native Development Officers (Cando) and the Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM).

CEDI’s website says, “CEDI gives First Nations and municipalities a chance to come together, learn from each other and work on common priorities, all while building respectful and sustainable government-to-government partnerships.”

The CEDI program has been around since 2013. Its website says it helps improve land use planning and coordination and can be a practical implementation of reconciliation goals. The CEDI says other partnerships in Canada have increased public and private investment in those communities, and increased labour income as well as created new jobs and saved existing ones.

An initial meeting and workshop was held locally on April 5th. Going forward, a joint working group will be established which will include representatives from Saugeen First Nation and Saugeen Shores.

Saugeen Shores says the Mayor will be part of the group as well as the CAO, the Manager of Strategic Initiatives, and the Economic Development Officer. The plan is for the two communities to meet monthly on community economic development initiatives.

A December 2020 CEDI report says other communities that have had such partnerships include Opaskwayak Cree Nation, The Town of The Pas and Kelsey, Manitoba which aimed to advance an agri-tech project and save a forestry operation in that area. A partnership between Madawaska Maliseet First Nation and The City of Edmundston, New Brunswick worked to attract tenants to the Grey Rock Power Centre which is a retail centre and truck stop overlooking the Trans-Canada Highway. Meanwhile, Edmonton partnered with Enoch Cree Nation on a grant proposal that a report says contributed to $12.5 million in public investment for water infrastructure.
Fort William First Nation and City of Thunder Bay have also had a CEDI partnership mainly centering around the development of an industrial park.

The local Community Economic Development Initiative is expected to continue until January 2025. Whether or not it will have a specific project it will focus on has not been announced.

Claire McCormack

April 24, 2023


New Indigenous police liaison says she hopes to ‘build bridges,’ expand role in Hamilton

Stacey Hill’s appointment comes after 2022 assault of Indigenous man by HPS officer

A man speaking into a microphone while facing a woman in an Indigenous jingle dress.
Const. Stacey Hill, right, was celebrated at a welcoming ceremony on Friday as she begins her role as the first Indigenous relations liaison with the Hamilton Police Service. Police Chief Frank Bergen, left, spoke at the ceremony about the role. (Cara Nickerson/CBC)

CBC News: Members of the urban Indigenous community in Hamilton are welcoming the city’s first Indigenous Hamilton Police Service (HPS) liaison — a role some are hopeful will help build trust and reduce violent interactions with police. A ceremony to mark the start of the role was held Friday at Pier 4 Park. The sunny afternoon was filled with laughter, song and the sweet smell of burning plants and fire as HPS Const. Stacey Hill, a Haudenosaunee and Anishinaabe woman, was welcomed into the position.

The event came nearly a year after the assault of Indigenous man Patrick Tomchuk. Hamilton police Const. Brian Wren pleaded guilty in February to the assault, which took place during Tomchuk’s arrest in May, 2022. Following the assault, the Hamilton Regional Indian Centre (HRIC) made several recommendations to improve relations between police and the Indigenous community, including the use of mandatory body cameras, the creation of a committee that would implement the Truth and Reconciliation Commission’s calls to action and the liaison position.

While the recommendation was made last year, Hill said there have been efforts to establish an Indigenous liaison over the course of her entire 25-year career.  “After a lot of trials and tribulations, here we are. We’re finally here,” she said. 

Hill’s goal as the liaison is to “build bridges” between Indigenous residents of Hamilton and the police, and she said she hopes to eventually expand the role and have more Indigenous liaison officers working with HPS.  “I won’t be working forever,” she said, adding that eventually she will need someone to take over her role. 

An Indigenous face can ‘make them feel safer’: HRIC

The welcome event involved a ceremonial fire, along with the burning of four Indigenous medicines — sweet grass, sage, tobacco and cedar.  Hill said she felt the ceremony was important to introduce herself and her role to the community.  “I’m able to see you and come and help you if you need help,” she said. 

Hill was welcomed into her role by a new Indigenous Consultation Circle, a group which includes members of the HRIC, the Hamilton Community Legal Clinic (HCLC), non-profit organization Niwasa Kendaaswin Teg and the Hamilton Native Women’s Centre.

An Indigenous woman gives another Indigenous woman an eagle feather.
Const. Stacey Hill, right, received an eagle feather from a member of the urban Indigenous community as she was welcomed into her new role. (Cara Nickerson/CBC)

Several speakers welcomed Hill, including Lyndon George from HCLC. George said the consultation circle was also created to address issues between Indigenous residents and the police.  George said the group has developed a strategic plan it will share with HPS and that there will be ongoing talks about the relationship.

“We’re hoping… that the impact will mean that there are less Indigenous people who are being criminally charged,” George said. “And more importantly, there are less Indigenous people who are being met with the brutal violence of any kind of police agents.”

Indigenous singers with instruments. One is a child.
The event included a ceremonial fire, Indigenous medicines (tobacco, cedar, sage and sweet grass), singing, a round dance and a lunch. (Cara Nickerson/CBC)

Audrey Davis, executive director of the HRIC, said having another Indigenous person there during police calls is an important step in building trust between the Indigenous community and the police.  “When Indigenous people are engaged with, when we have that brown face there to make them feel safer and to connect them to services in the community, there is more relationship building,” she said. 

‘We don’t want to [always meet] in tragedy or crisis’: Hamilton police chief 

At the ceremony, police Chief Frank Bergen said he is thankful the HRIC has been open to discussions with HPS.  He said the investigation into the assault of Tomchuk has prompted more discussion between Indigenous community leaders and police.  “This community is continually willing to work with us in an advisory capacity and therefore, when issues are are on the horizon, we can have conversations,” he said.  “But we don’t want to get to the position where we’re always just meeting in a tragedy or in a crisis.” 

People taking tobacco from a woman.
Community members attending the event took a pinch of tobacco from Const. Stacey Hill and offered it to the ceremonial fire, after sharing their hopes for Hill’s new role with her. (Cara Nickerson/CBC)

Hill was gifted an eagle feather and tobacco. All in attendance took a small pinch of the medicine and dropped it into the fire, signifying their hopes for Hill’s new position and what it will mean for the community.  “A lot of people have been looking forward to this and now that it’s finally come to fruition, the response has been phenomenal within the Indigenous community,” Hill said. 


Cara Nickerson, Cara Nickerson is a journalist with Ontario’s six local news markets: CBC Hamilton, CBC Windsor, CBC Sudbury, CBC Kitchener-Waterloo, CBC Thunder Bay and CBC London. She covers all topics, but has a special interest in reporting on social issues and community events. 

July 27, 2018

Niagara Region

Every Niagara Regional Council meeting will now begin with a special acknowledgment: “We begin this meeting by acknowledging the land on which we gather is the traditional territory of the Haudenosaunee and Anishinaabe peoples, many of whom continue to live and work here today. This territory is covered by the Upper Canada Treaties and is within the land protected by the Dish With One Spoon Wampum agreement. Today this gathering place is home to many First Nations, Metis, and Inuit peoples and acknowledging reminds us that our great standard of living is directly related to the resources and friendship of Indigenous people.”

September 1, 2017

Québec City, QC

KWE! – Meet with Indigenous Peoples – An annual event to learn more about the 11 Indigenous Nations in Quebec through events such as workshops on traditional knowledge, tastings of culinary specialities, discussions to learn more about issues affecting Indigenous communities, and much more.

February 20, 2019

Quesnel, BC

Quesnel City Council has agreed to return the land at Ceal Tingley Park to Lhtako Dene Nation for the proposed 18,000 square foot Lhtako Dene Indigenous Cultural Centre project. This site, at the confluence of the Fraser and Quesnel rivers is significant to the Lhtako Dene as the site of a major settlement. This site is also historically significant as the site of first contact with European explorers when Alexander Mackenzie first travelled through the area, and later, with Simon Fraser as he journeyed down the Fraser River.

August 12, 2020

Regina, SK

Reconciliation Regina, in partnership with the City of Regina, has released its 2020 – 2021 Community Action Plan. The Plan is based on four significant values – relationships, respect, opportunities and accountability. In each of these values the Plan will track progress to report back to the community and have actions and deliverables that are key to acting on the Truth and Reconciliation Commission’s Calls to Action.

March 26, 2019

Richmond Hill, ON

Councillors voted unanimously to adopt a motion that directs staff to create a course to provide education and training on the history of Indigenous peoples to employees of Richmond Hill, replacing a motion that proposed to begin council meetings with a land acknowledgement statement. Richmond Hill residents slam decision on Indigenous land acknowledgement. (Richmond Hill Liberal)

July 20, 2021

Saskatoon, SK

CBC – At a meeting of the governance and priorities committee on Monday, councillors voted unanimously in favour of administration writing a report on how UNDRIP could be implemented at a local level, and what potential financial and other effects might come with it being enacted.

June 1, 2015

Saskatoon, SK

City Council proclaimed 2015–16 the Year of Reconciliation

April 7, 2022

Thorold: Road to Reconciliation – City supports Indigenous healing garden

ThoroldToday: Thorold City Council has thrown its support behind a proposed Indigenous medicine wheel healing garden in Mel Swart Lake Gibson Conservation Park. A delegation of the One Thorold Indigenous Truth and Reconciliation Committee was on hand at Tuesday’s city council meeting to present the project to council members.

One Thorold is a partnership of community organizations, businesses, faith groups, and local government to facilitate the continued positive transformation of Thorold. In September 2021, they launched a reconciliation committee to educate and raise awareness for Indigenous issues in Thorold.

As a representative of the committee, Michele-Elise Burnett laid out the group’s vision for the garden, which she referred to as “an outdoor classroom where we can host ongoing Indigenous educational and interactive programming.” “Our vision is to have a garden nestled in the beautiful, scenic backdrop of Mel Swart Conservation Area—lands which have been inhabited by Indigenous people for millennia,” she said, addressing council members. “It would be in the shape of the medicine wheel, representing the four quadrants of the four directions and also of the people of the four directions of mother earth.”

Burnett is president of Indigenous consultancy company Kakekalanicks and has spearheaded many Indigenous projects in the Niagara region. She thinks the healing garden is a necessary project that will help educate Canadians on Indigenous issues.

“Without proper context and understanding of Indigenous history and culture most Canadian citizens are unable to fairly evaluate modern issues involving Indigenous governance rights and authorities,” said Burnett. “Therefore [they] may make uninformed civic and policy decisions that negatively impact First Nations, Inuit and, Métis people.”

Aug. 4, 2022: Thorold Today: Thorold City Council has decided to fast track the creation of the Indigenous healing garden in Mel Swart Park, in hopes of finishing the project in time for Truth and Reconciliation Day on September 30.

April 7, 2021

Timmins, ON

TimminsToday – At the Timmins council meeting Tuesday, the Indigenous Engagement Framework was approved. The draft framework was approved in 2019.

The framework has three themes:

  • addressing humanitarian needs,
  • delivering on the calls to action in the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada and
  • re-engaging economic alliances.

March 23, 2022

Toronto Reconciliation Action Plan

City of Toronto: Launch of the first Reconciliation Action Plan…that will guide the City’s actions from 2022 to 2032 to advance truth, justice and reconciliation. The Reconciliation Action Plan builds on the City’s existing commitments to Indigenous Peoples through 28 meaningful actions across five themes: 

  • actions to restore truth,
  • actions to right relations and share power, 
  • actions for justice, 
  • actions to make financial reparations and 
  • actions for the Indigenous Affairs Office.

The 28 actions outlined in the Plan will contribute to the visibility and overall wellbeing of First Nations, Inuit and Métis Peoples in Toronto through:

  • placemaking and placekeeping
  • supporting economic development and prosperity
  • increasing civic engagement
  • honouring Indigenous ways of knowing and being, and 
  • recognizing rights to self-determination and self-governance. 

A key priority for the City will be addressing barriers and colonial practices embedded in its policies, processes and practices to better serve Indigenous residents in Toronto.


September 5, 2018

Toronto, ON

The City of Toronto today began the first in a series of consultations that will inform and guide the creation of an Indigenous Centre for Innovation and Entrepreneurship (ICIE). The purpose of the ICIE is to provide a space and support for Indigenous entrepreneurs looking to build businesses, social enterprises, not-for-profits, collectives or co-operatives by providing access to resources, advisory support and workspace for their ventures. The centre will be located at a City-owned commercial space at 200 Dundas St. E. in a building that is currently under construction. The City will take possession of the space at the end of 2019.

June 22, 2017

Toronto, ON

Commemorating Canada’s 22nd National Aboriginal Day, the City of Toronto saw the permanent installation of Indigenous flags at Nathan Phillips Square to honour the Mississaugas of the New Credit First Nation, Six Nations, Huron-Wendat, Métis, and Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami.
City to spend some $520K to open Indigenous Affairs Office attacged to the City Managers office aimed at improving relationship with Indigenous people.

July 5, 2005

Toronto, ON

The City adopted the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) as part of the City’s year-long proclamation on Truth and Reconciliation 2013 – 2014

October 19, 2022


Vancouver task force on Indigenous rights releases report for City Council

APTN National News: The Squamish Nation victory song rang out in Vancouver as chiefs, leaders from the community and representatives from city hall gathered to celebrate a report by a joint task force on how to implement the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) in B.C.’s largest city.

The task force was made up of city officials and members of the Musqueam, Squamish and Tsleil-Waututh nations.

“One hundred and fifty-odd years after confederation we are being given consideration as human beings of this land of this country of this world,” said Elder Larry Grant from the Musqueam Nation.

The national chief of the Assembly of First Nations called it a historic day for First Nations across the country – and that there is an opportunity for other municipalities to embrace UNDRIP.

“It’s really important for all municipalities, especially in B.C., that has its own UNDRIP legislation to really embrace these types of plans and how they will align themselves with those principles,” said RoseAnne Archibald. “I was speaking to somebody earlier here who is a part of the plan-making and they are talking about going from where you are today, which is at the very beginning of the plan, to eventually talking about taxation sharing.

“So how do you begin to share that wealth that is being generated from the lands with the people who the land belongs to the original peoples.”

In October 2019, the province of B.C. officially recognized UNDRIP.

Squamish council chairperson and task force co-chair Khelsilem told the gathering the strategy came about because of a “genuine, mutual respect” between those involved, and a desire to create a meaningful pathway for reconciliation in the city.

The recommendations are sorted into themes:

  • social, cultural and economic well-being;
  • ending Indigenous-specific racism and discrimination;
  • self-determination and inherent right of self-government; and
  • rights and title of Indigenous Peoples.

Among the calls to action are prioritizing access to cultural sites for the nations’ members and developing a policy to assess industrial infrastructure development through the lens of Indigenous rights and environmental racism.

The report also recommends the Vancouver Police Department work with Indigenous Peoples to integrate into its operations the principles of the United Nations declaration and recommendations from the Truth and Reconciliation Commission and Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls.

Vancouver city council unanimously adopted a motion in March 2021 to create an UNDRIP task force in partnership with the nations, which produced what officials say is the first co-developed strategy to implement the United Nations declaration between a municipality and Indigenous governments in Canada.

With files from the Canadian Press

October 20, 2022


Vancouver’s UNDRIP Strategy with First Nations first of its kind in Canada

 Squamish Nation council chairperson Khelsilem, who also is co-chair of UNDRIP task force.Photo Mike Howell

Vancouver city council is days away from voting on an historic document involving the Musqueam, Squamish and Tsleil-Waututh nations that aims to create a pathway to implement a long list of recommendations to address the city’s colonial past and recognize rights and title of Indigenous peoples.

The document — the first of its kind for a Canadian municipal government — proposes 79 recommendations that include returning land to the nations, creating revenue-sharing streams and having representation on the Vancouver Police Board and other agencies in the city and region.

In a ceremony Wednesday at the Museum of Vancouver, which is located on land once home to a Squamish village that was burned to the ground by government in 1913, members of the nations celebrated the release of what is called the City of Vancouver UNDRIP Strategy.

“Whether it’s on economic development, whether it’s on culture, whether it’s on fighting discrimination, there’s all kinds of things that we all win from our nations and our governments working together,” said Khelsilem, chairperson of the Squamish Nation council. “I’m very excited about the future ahead.”

UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

Khelsilem and Vancouver Coun. Christine Boyle are co-chairs of a task force created last year by the city and nations to develop a strategy to implement the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) and use it as a framework towards reconciliation.

The comprehensive document, which has been endorsed by the three nations, will go before city council at its Oct. 25 meeting at city hall. If it passes, an implementation plan would be drafted and inter-governmental committee created to ensure action is taken on the recommendations.

Some of the recommendations include:

  • Have the city work with the Musqueam, Squamish and Tsleil-Waututh to identify parcels of land which are “culturally, economically and socially significant” and return them to the nations.
  • Identify options for revenue sharing to the three nations via property taxes collected by the City of Vancouver.
  • Redistribute fees to the nations that the city collects from developers; this would be seen as redress for lands lost that cannot be developed by the nations.
  • Expand the Vancouver Police Board membership to include representatives from the three nations.
  • Provide funds, staff and space for the nations to train liaisons with the Vancouver Police Department, particularly in the Downtown Eastside, where there is a large Indigenous population.
  • Prioritize affordable housing for the nations that go beyond reserve lands.
  • Undisputed access to municipal services for reduced or minimal fees to affordable housing projects on reserve lands.
  • Reconciliation curricula in schools that teach the relationships between the three nations and the land and its people.
  • Identify and address barriers including but not limited to parking fees and time limits.
  • Improve recruitment, retention and advancement of Indigenous peoples in City of Vancouver careers.
  • Shape a process for the Vancouver Economic Commission to bring its policies and procedures in alignment with UNDRIP to include and reflect the nations and support their economic prosperity.
  • Update City of Vancouver procurement policies to ensure contract opportunities are reserved for businesses owned by or partnered with the three nations.

Boyle said she was honoured to be a co-chair of the task force and was confident council would pass the strategy next week. It will be the last formal meeting of the current council before mayor-elect Ken Sim and the newly elected council is sworn in Nov. 7.

“The task force has had representation from multiple political parties through its work and has always very intentionally not been political,” she told reporters after the ceremony. “So I’m optimistic it will pass unanimously and that the next council will step in to continue the work in that same spirit.”

‘Broken systems’

During the ceremony, Boyle described the City of Vancouver as a colonial institution that for decades upheld harmful colonial practices and laws. She pointed out the city’s homeless population continues to be overrepresented by Indigenous peoples, while others live in precarious housing situations.

“Implementing UNDRIP at every level, including the city level, is an important act of redress and reconciliation,” said Boyle, who was re-elected in Saturday’s election. “It’s also a transformative opportunity for all of us together to fix broken systems and build stronger relationships with one another, and the land and the water.”

Several members of each nation spoke during the lengthy ceremony, including Musqueam elder Larry Grant, who said he was hopeful the UNDRIP strategy would address the city’s colonial past, present and future.

“One hundred and fifty some odd years after Confederation, we are being given consideration as human beings of this land, of this country, of this world,” he told the crowd, which included Assembly of First Nations National Chief RoseAnne Archibald, Regional Chief of the Assembly of BC First Nations Terry Teegee and Vancouver-Point Grey MLA David Eby, who is expected to become B.C.’s next premier.

Teegee commended the City of Vancouver for taking the lead on a strategy with the nations, adding that he hoped it would influence other municipalities to do the same. “You’re blazing the trail, and that’s really important,” he said.

Archibald welcomed the nations and the city joining together to draft the document but cautioned that reconciliation is still a work in progress. “The other day I did an interview about reconciliation, and I said, ‘If reconciliation is a 12-chapter book, we are on the first chapter,’” she said. “But we are only on the first sentence of the first chapter, and that’s what this event is about.”

Former city councillor Andrea Reimer was overcome with emotion as she spoke, pointing out Indigenous leaders such as Lillian Howard, who died last year, couldn’t be present to witness the ceremony.

“I’m thinking a lot about this importance of the past and the future, and you can’t create a future that doesn’t have a past as its foundation,” said Reimer, who spent her years on council pushing for reconciliation and improving relations with First Nations.

‘Racism within our city’

After the ceremony, reporters asked members of the task force what recommendations they believed would bring the most concrete change.

Councillor Charlene Aleck of Tsleil-Waututh: “Having the representation of the Musqueam, Squamish and Tsleil-Waututh within their territories and being prevalent in not only the land…art, or the culture that’s present within the city, but being present at tables and implementing our Coast Salish laws in economic [ways], in education, in corporations, organizations and it cascading down into all the other fields within the city.”

Councillor Allyson Fraser of Musqueam: “One of the calls to action that I would like to see worked on is racism within our city. As my family member Wade Grant [said during the ceremony] is that I come from a background of an Aboriginal person, as well as Chinese ancestry. So we know that within the city of Vancouver, there has been a lot of racism going on. And I’d like to see that our children are being brought up in a community where we can all work together and live together, and I think that this document will bring that forward.”

Councillor Dennis Thomas of Tsleil-Waututh: “The economic and revenue sharing is one thing that I’d like to see being fulfilled. And another one is the generational transformative work that we’ve put into this document needs to be shared with different organizations, different committees and different workforces like the parks board and VPD.”

The UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples was adopted by the UN General Assembly in September 2007. Since then, the Canadian government passed the UNDRIP Act in 2021 and the B.C. government passed the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples Act in 2019.

Note: In 2016, the Vancouver Courier published a series that examined Vancouver through an Indigenous lens. Stories included the city’s role in reconciliation, economic developmenteducationpolicing and interviews with elders.

Musqueam knowledge keeper Shane Pointe was also featured.

To view the report click on the following link: City of Vancouver’s UNDRIP Strategy: Report of
the UNDRIP Task Force to the City of Vancouver Mayor & Council


Other Background Content By Theme

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First Nations-Municipal Community Economic Development Initiatives

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Urban Aboriginal Strategy

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Urban Reserves

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Federal Programs

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National Urban Inuit Strategy

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Federation of Canadian Municipalities

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